Circumstances for Committing Crimes in the Banking Sector: Normative and Legal Aspect
The historical way of the development of banking business and the state of its legislative provision, which had an impact on criminal behavior in this area, has been studied. It has been noticed that the responsible officials of banking institutions, due to their high level of education, skillfully used gaps or contradictions in the legislation for the useful purposes of illegal enrichment. They quickly adapt to amendments in normative and legal regulation and invent new schemes of criminal technology.
The key factors in the situation of committing crimes in the presented area are: search for opportunities for criminal enrichment by using existing powers; conspiracy of officials of commercial banks with representatives of supervisory agencies (curators from some units of the National Bank of UKraine) in order to cover up criminal activity; development of a plan of financial fraud with representatives of commercial organizations in order to steal the entrusted funds and their further legalization. Typically, such criminal “associations” try to have long-term relationships under the guise of corrupt relations with supervisors and banking secrecy in order to systematically generate illicit proceeds. In case of the risk of detecting criminal schemes, the banking institution may be brought to bankruptcy, which is used as the method to hide traces of criminal activity.
Analysis of the impact of regulatory factor in the context of committing economic crimes in the banking sector is a perspective and relevant area of further research. In this regard, the development of the doctrine of forensic forecasting in conditions of instability of processes in the economy in its individual segments (lending, currency regulation), weak control over the conduct and accounting of banking transactions, etc. is of great importance.
Equally important is the development of cooperation between law enforcement agencies involved in the fight against crime in the banking sector, with the units of the National Bank, the State Fiscal Service and financial monitoring; the improvement of the methodology of conducting certain types of examinations, etc. Provisions for such cooperation are enshrined in law and are in force, but some need to be revised in the light of central government reforms.
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