Basic Evolutionary Stages of Polish Democracy

Keywords: democracy, socialism, civil society, market economy, free press, elections, tolerance.


The article is focused on studying and scientific understanding of the process of the formation and evolution of Poland as a modern democratic European state. The author has indicated the significance of the influence of the democratic traditions of the Polish people on the formation of the current model of the state system of the Republic of Poland.

The author has established the general chronological boundaries of each of the periods of democratization of Polish society starting from the times of “noble democracy”. The main characteristics of the stages of democratic development of Poland until the present day have been determined.

The main factors that influenced the course of democratic transit in the Polish state have been clarified. It has been proved that the peculiarities of modern Polish statehood are determined by the historical traditions of Polish democracy, the mentality of the Polish people and membership in the European Union and other international organizations. It has been emphasized that the implementation of economic and institutional transformations in Poland in the post-Soviet period was accompanied by the simultaneous formation of civil society. It has been established that the result of democratic transit in the Republic of Poland is a liberal democracy of the Western type with a certain bias towards social democracy.

The author has emphasized the decisive role of European integration processes in the formation of the Republic of Poland as a democratic, legal and social state. Based on the analysis of the current legislation and ongoing reforms in the law-making sphere, the author has defined the main factors that determine the existing systemic threats to the rule of law and democracy in Poland at the present stage of its state-building.

It has been stated that although Polish democracy demonstrates some negative tendencies, it is unlikely collapsed due to the current challenges, since the Republic still maintains the balance between state power and political freedom of citizens and their associations and the general atmosphere in Polish society remains open and free.


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Author Biography

M. I. Marchuk, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs

Doctor of Juridical Sciences, Docent.
Department of Constitutional and International Law (head).


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How to Cite
Marchuk, M. I. (2021) “Basic Evolutionary Stages of Polish Democracy”, Bulletin of Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, 93(2), pp. 68-81. doi: 10.32631/v.2021.2.06.