Ensuring the State’s Legal Liability is the Key Challenge of Legal Reform in the Modern Ukraine
Special attention has been paid to the fact that the doctrine of legal liability of the state to a person is increasingly affirmed in Ukraine as a theoretical basis for the functioning of state power in general and all its agencies in particular. However, despite the large number of scientific developments, the national legal science still can not boast of an unambiguous and generally recognized understanding of the essence of the phenomenon of legal liability of the state.
It has been stressed that legal liability was interpreted for a long time as a kind of “continuation” of the state itself: in the context of the concept of state coercion means it was solely perceived as an instrument of state power for punishing offenders. However, such a concept denied the question about legal liability of the state itself as an equal personality of the subject of law.
It has been stated that the phenomenon of legal liability of the state one can consider a certain continuation of the political and legal strategy on self-limitation of the state by law. Such liability is naturally considered a characteristic feature of the legal type of statehood, and it directly concerns only the democratic type of states. Instead, undemocratic states do not bear or acknowledge (or only declare) any real legal liability to society. Therefore, in terms of a democracy, the state is a real subject of liability to society, which is guaranteed on the normative and institutional levels.
The current stage of development of the institution of legal liability of the state is characterized by the highest normative level of its institutionalization – constitutional one. This level ensures: 1) the irreversibility of the state’s course on the establishment of legal statehood; 2) fixing the starting, the main elements of the normative model of legal liability of the state; 3) completion of the registration of legal personality of the state in the modern world, which was incomplete without constitutional establishment of its legal liability; 4) the parity nature of the relations of the state with other subjects of law on the basis of a combination of dispositive and imperative, public and private components. The constitutional model of the state’s legal liability to a human being is based on the same principles in Ukraine. Such liability, in particular, is not limited to the political or moral liability of public authorities to society, but has the features of legal liability as applying measures of public and legal (constitutional or international) nature to the state and its agencies for the failure or improper performance of the duties.
Yaremchuk S.V., 2014. To the Problem of the Institution of Personal Responsibility’s Formation in Ukraine [Do problemy formuvannia instytutu vidpovidalnosti derzhavy pered osoboiu v Ukraini]. Naukovij vìsnik Lʹvìvsʹkogo deržavnogo unìversitetu vnutrìšnìh sprav – Scientific Bulletin of Lviv State University of Internal Affairs, No. 3, pp. 41-52.
Shemshuchenko Yu.S., Onishchenko N.M., Parkhomenko N.M., Stoietskyi S.V. et al., 2014. The Concept of Improving the Institute of Legal Responsibility of the State Towards Society and the Individual in Ukraine [Kontseptsiia udoskonalennia instytutu yurydychnoi vidpovidalnosti derzhavy pered hromadianskym suspilstvom ta osoboiu v Ukraini]. Kyiv: Instytut derzhavy i prava im. V. M. Koretskoho NAN Ukrainy.
Zaichuk O.V., 2014. The Concept of Improving the Institution of the Legal Responsibility of the State Towards Society and the Individual in Ukraine [Kontseptsiia udoskonalennia instytutu yurydychnoi vidpovidalnosti derzhavy pered hromadianskym suspilstvom ta osoboiu v Ukraini]. Časopis Kiïvsʹkogo unìversitetu prava – Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, No. 3, pp. 311-312.
Pesin S.V., 2002. The State as the Subject of Legal Responsibility: the Theoretical and Legal Analysis [Gosudarstvo kak sub``ekt yuridicheskoi otvetstvennosti: teoretiko-pravovoi analiz]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Law Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
Romanova V.V., 2007. The Legal Responsibility of the State [Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost` gosudarstva]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Kazan State University.
Onishchenko N., 2015. Human Rights in the Context of Administrative Legal Relations’ Regulation [Prava liudyny v konteksti zabezpechennia rehuliuvannia administratyvnykh pravovidnosyn]. In: Nechytailo O.M. (ed.). Protection of Human Rights in Administrative Proceedings: Current and Future Prospects of Development in Ukraine [Zakhyst prav liudyny v administratyvnomu sudochynstvi: suchasnyi stan i perspektyvy rozvytku v Ukraini]. Kyiv, 1-2 October. Kyiv: Vaite. Pp. 82-87.
Chernukha T.L., 2015. To the Problem of State Self-restraint in the Philosophical and Legal Doctrine of Georg Jellinek [Do problemy samoobmezhennia derzhavy u filosofsko-pravovii doktryni Heorha Yellineka]. Naukovì zapiski NaUKMA. Fìlosofìâ ta relìgìêznavstvo – NaUKMA Research Papers in Philosophy and Religious Studies, Vol. 167, pp. 66-69.
Ivanchuk N.V., 2007. The Mutual Responsibility of the Individual and the State in the Context of the Modern Ukrainian State Development [Vzaiemna vidpovidalnist osoby i derzhavy v konteksti rozbudovy suchasnoi Ukrainskoi derzhavy]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Kyiv National University of Internal Affairs.
Onishchenko N., 2013. To the Issue of the Doctrine of Human Rights in Ukraine Development (Years of Independence) [Do pytannia pro rozvytok doktryny prav liudyny v Ukraini (roky nezalezhnosti)]. Pravo Ukraïni – Law of Ukraine, No. 9, pp. 176-193.
Onishchenko N.M., 2008. The Perception of Law in a Democratic Development. Problems, Realities, Prospects [Spryiniattia prava v umovakh demokratychnoho rozvytku. Problemy, realii, perspektyvy]. Kyiv: Instytut derzhavy i prava imeni V. M. Koretskoho NAN Ukrainy. (Ed.: Shemshuchenko Yu.S.).
Serediuk V.V., 2015. The State Responsibility as an Element of the Concept of “Legal State” [Vidpovidalnist derzhavy yak element poniattia “pravova derzhava”]. Časopis Kiïvsʹkogo unìversitetu prava – Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, No. 1, pp. 42-45.
Stakhura B.I., 2016. The Role of Public Authorities in Ensuring the Person and the Citizen Rights in a Democratic Society: a Theoretical and Legal Aspect [Rol orhaniv derzhavnoi vlady u zabezpechenni prav liudyny i hromadianyna v demokratychnomu suspilstvi: teoretyko-pravovyi vymir]. Ph.D. dissertation. Lviv State University of Internal Affairs.
Onishchenko N.M., 2008. The Improving the Legislation’s Effectiveness as a Condition for the Social Conflicts Prevention [Pidvyshchennia efektyvnosti zakonodavstva yak peredumova zapobihannia sotsialnym konfliktam]. Naukovì zapiski Ìnstitutu polìtičnih ì etnonacìonalʹnih doslìdženʹ ìm. Ì.F. Kurasa NAN Ukraïni – Scientific notes of the I.F. Kuras Institute of political and ethnic studies, Iss. 41, pp. 36-44.
Bysaha Yu.Yu., 2011. The Legal Responsibility of Public Authorities and Local Self-government: the Theoretical and Legal Research [Yurydychna vidpovidalnist orhaniv derzhavnoi vlady ta mistsevoho samovriaduvannia: teoretyko-pravove doslidzhennia]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv.
Kiss S.V., 2016. The Development of a Welfare State in Ukraine: Theoretical, Historical and Legal Aspects [Rozvytok sotsialnoi derzhavy v Ukraini: teoretychni ta istoryko-pravovi aspekty]. Ph.D. dissertation. Open International University of Human Development “Ukraine”.
Onishchenko N.M. and Sunegin S.O., 2014. Responsibility of a State Before a Person in the Context of Civil Society Development [Vidpovidalnist derzhavy pered osoboiu v konteksti rozvytku hromadianskoho suspilstva]. Deržava ì pravo – State and Law, Iss. 64, pp. 3-11.
Markunin R.S., 2013. The Legal Responsibility of Deputies and Representative Bodies: the General Theoretical Aspect [Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost` deputatov i organov predstavitel`noi vlasti: obshcheteoreticheskii aspekt]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Saratov State Law Academy.
Pylypyshyn P.B., 2017. The Constitutional and Legal Liability of the Local Self-government Authorities’ Bodies and Officers in Ukraine [Konstytutsiino-pravova vidpovidalnist orhaniv ta posadovykh osib mistsevoho samovriaduvannia v Ukraini]. Ph.D. dissertation. Institute for State and Law named after V. M. Koretskyi of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Ovcharenko O.M., 2018. Judicial Liability of Judges: Issues of Theory and Practice [Yurydychna vidpovidalnist suddiv: pytannia teorii i praktyky]. D.Sc. dissertation. National University “Odessa Law Academy”.
Kushkhova B.Z., 2009. The Legal Responsibility of Public Authority in Modern Russia: the General Theoretical Aspect [Yuridicheskaya otvetstvennost` publichnoi vlasti v sovremennoi Rossii: obshcheteoreticheskii aspekt]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Kuban State Agrarian University.
Baulin Yu.V., 2014. The Development of the Constitutional Doctrine of Ukraine in the Decisions of the Constitutional Court of Ukraine [Rozvytok konstytutsiinoi doktryny ukrainskoi derzhavy v rishenniakh Konstytutsiinoho Sudu Ukrainy]. Kyiv.
Svirydenko G.V., 2017. Lawful Behavior: Theoretical-and-Practical Basis [Pravomirna povedinka: teoretyko-prykladni zasady]. D.Sc. dissertation. Institute for State and Law Named After V. M. Koretskyi of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.
Verba I.O., 2016. The Right to Justice Access and Its Legal Support: the General Legal Characteristics [Pravo na dostup do pravosuddia ta yoho yurydychne zabezpechennia: zahalnopravova kharakterystyka]. D.Sc. dissertation. Classic Private University.
Ovcharenko O.M., 2008. The Accessibility of Justice and Guarantees of its Implementation [Dostupnist pravosuddia ta harantii yoho realizatsii]. Kharkiv: Pravo.
Onishchenko N.M., Stoietskyi S.V. and Suniehin S.O., 2014. To the Issue of State Responsibility Towards the Civil Society [Do pytannia pro vidpovidalnist derzhavy pered hromadianskym suspilstvom]. Časopis Kiïvsʹkogo unìversitetu prava – Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, No. 2, pp. 9-13.
Trofimova M.P., 2000. The Legal Responsibility Functions [Funktsii yuridicheskoi otvetstvennosti]. Abstract of Ph.D. dissertation. Samara State Academy of Economics.
Khachaturov R.L. and Lipinskii D.A., 2007. The General Theory of Legal Liability [Obshchaya teoriya yuridicheskoi otvetstvennosti]. St. Petersburg: Yuridicheskii tsentr Press.
Azemsha I.B., 2012. The Features of the Institution of Legal Responsibility Formation in Ukraine [Osoblyvosti formuvannia instytutu yurydychnoi vidpovidalnosti v Ukraini]. Časopis Kiïvsʹkogo unìversitetu prava – Law Review of Kyiv University of Law, No. 2, pp. 44-47.
Shumylo M. and Andrushko O., 2018. The State as a Subject of the Legal Responsibility Towards the Person in Criminal Proceedings [Derzhava yak subiekt yurydychnoi vidpovidalnosti pered liudynoiu u kryminalnomu protsesi]. Pravo Ukraïni – Law of Ukraine, No. 8, pp. 15-33.
Copyright (c) 2019 O. S. Bakumov
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.