Research of Civil and Legal Relations of Kievan Rus Period Made by Professor P. P. Tsitovich (1843-1913)

Keywords: history of law, P. P. Tsitovich, Kievan Rus, Russkaia Pravda, marital and marital relationships, succession law.


The subject matter of the research is the creative work of the professor of Kharkiv, Kyiv, Odesa and St. Petersburg Universities P. P. Tsitovich related to some aspects of the law of Kievan Rus. The novelty of the work is the fact that this problem in the historical and legal literature has not been studied yet. For the first time, the author of the article has studied the main aspects of scientific research accomplished by professor P. P. Tsitovich in the field of civil law of the period of the Old Russian State. The author of this research has used historical, formal and logical methods.

It has been discovered that the first sources were Russo-Byzantine treaties of the X century, which were the beginning of his research; the author of the article has accomplished a comparative analysis of his points of view on these issues as well as the opinions of his contemporaries – scholars from other Universities; has analyzed his thoughts about testamentary heritage in the Ancient Russia era.

It has been also established that P. P. Tsitovich concluded that the treaties between Rus and Byzantine Empire of the X century are irrelevant for the history of Russian succession law both in nature and through the confusion of the resolutions contained there. He believed that they did not determine the system and procedure of inheritance. This point of view did not coincide with the opinion of most law historians of that time.

  1. P. Tsitovich also expressed his opinion about the general characteristics of the property relations of the Kievan Rus era. He believed that the land itself did not have any value in that era and it was only received as a household.
  2. P. Tsitovich also expressed his opinion that the equal relations between men and women in the family are possible, in case if a woman was not stolen and was not purchased, but voluntary got married like in the equal to equal relationships.

The scholar’s work put forward two dogmas related to inheritance: 1) heirs – are children in general, but the preference is given to men over women; 2) unmarried women have the right to a part of the inheritance if there are brothers.

The works of P. P. Tsitovich in the sphere of succession law and marital relations of the Kievan Rus era have a certain significance at the present time.


Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

V. A. Grechenko, Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs

Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor.
Department on social and humanitarian studies.


Chubinskii M.P. and Bagalei D.I. (eds), 1908. Law Faculty of Kharkiv University for the first one hundred years of its existence (1805-1905) [Yuridicheskii fakul`tet Khar`kovskogo universiteta za pervye sto let ego sushchestvovaniya (1805-1905)]. Kharkiv: Pechatnoe delo. Pp. 78-91.

Tsitovich P., 1870. Initial moments in the history of Russian law of inheritance [Iskhodnye momenty v istorii russkogo prava nasledovaniya]. Kharkiv: Universitetskaya tipografiya.

Rectors of the University [Rektory universiteta]. [online] V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University. Available at [Accessed 10 October 2018].

Slivitskii V., 1908. Tsitovich, Petr Pavlovich. In: Chubinskii M.P. and Bagalei D.I. (eds). Law Faculty of Kharkiv University for the first one hundred years of its existence (1805-1905). Kharkiv: Pechatnoe delo. P. 199.

Tsitovich (Petr Pavlovich), 1903. In: Andreevskii I.E. (ed.). Encyclopedic dictionary [Entsiklopedicheskii slovar`]. Vol. 38: Censorial Committee – Man [Tsenzurnyi komitet – Chelovek]. St. Petersburg: Tip. Brokgauza i Efrona. Pp. 243-244.

Samoilenko O.O. and Usenko I.B., 2013. Tsitovych Petro Pavlovich. In: Smolii V.A. et al (eds). Encyclopedia of history of Ukraine [Entsyklopediia istorii Ukrainy]: in 10 vols. Vol. 10. Kyiv: Naukova dumka. Pp. 408-409.

Tsitovich Petr Pavlovich. [online] Wikipedia. Last edited 2 June 2018. Available at,_%D0%9F%D1%91%D1%82%D1%80_%D0%9F%D0%B0%D0%B2%D0%BB%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 [Accessed 10 October 2018].

Bandurka O.M. and Grechenko V.A., 2017. Research of international treaties of Kievan Rus of the Х century made by V. V. Sokolskyi [Doslidzhennia V. V. Sokolskym mizhnarodnykh dohovoriv Kyivskoi Rusi Х st.]. Suprematia dreptului, No. 4, p. 5-12.

Belyaev I.D., 1858. On inheritance without a testament, according to ancient Russian laws, before the Code of laws of tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich [О nasledstve bez zaveshchaniya, pо drevnim russkim zakonam, dо Ulozheniya tsarya Alekseya Mikhailovicha]. Moskow: Universitetskaya tipohrafiya. Pp. 8, 13.

Lakier A.B., 1848. On patrimonial estate and landed property [О votchinakh i pomest`yakh]. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya knizhnogo magazina I. Krasheninnikova. Pp. 156.

Nikol`skii V., 1859. On the origin of inheritance in the most ancient Russian law. Historical discourse [O nachalakh nasledovaniya v drevneishem russkom prave. Istoricheskoe rassuzhdenie]. Moscow: Universitetskaya tipografiya.

Sokol`skii V.V., 1870. About agreements of Russians with Greeks [О dogovorakh russkikh s grekami]. Universitetskie izvestiya, No. 1.

Vladimirskii-Budanov M.F., 1907. Review of the history of Russian law [Obzor istorii russkogo prava]. 5th ed. Kyiv: Lito-tipografiya Tovarishchestva I. N. Kushnerev i Kо.

Nevolin K., 1851. History of Russian civil laws [Istoriya rossiiskikh grazhdanskikh zakonov]. Vol. 3. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk.

Stanislavskii A., 1855. Research about the origin of property relations in the most ancient monuments of Russian legislation [Issledovanie o nachale imushchestvennykh otnoshenii v drevneishykh pamyatnikakh russkogo zakonodatel`stva]. Kazan`: Izdatel`stvo knigoprodavtsa Ivana Dubrovina. P. 4.

Rozhdestvenskii N., 1839. Historical statement of Russian legislation about inheritance [Istoricheskoe izlozhenie russkogo zakonodatel`stva о nasledstve]. St. Petersburg: Tipografiya N. Grecha. Pp. 12, 34–35.

Abstract views: 53
PDF Downloads: 26
How to Cite
Grechenko, V. (2018) “Research of Civil and Legal Relations of Kievan Rus Period Made by Professor P. P. Tsitovich (1843-1913)”, Bulletin of Kharkiv National University of Internal Affairs, 81(2), pp. 46-54. doi: 10.32631/v.2018.2.04.

Most read articles by the same author(s)